Bio-Ingredients

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Glossary

Antioxidants are active substances that help protect our body against oxidative damage caused by free radicals. Free radicals are highly unstable molecules that arise from many physiological and environmental events. Smoking, pollution, physical activity, sunlight, and conversion of food into energy, are all bodily processes that produce free radicals. Although naturally occurring, an excessive concentration of these molecules can cause oxidative stress that could potentially lead to cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, etc. Antioxidants molecules counteract oxidative stress by interacting with free radicals and inhibiting their action on cellular membrane. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, selenium, glutathione, and carotenoids.

In humans, B-complex vitamins are involved in energy metabolism. Any deficiencies can cause chronic fatigue, sleep disorder and neuropathy. Some specific B-complex vitamins are involved in other body activities. Vitamin B12 and folic acid, for example, play an important role in red blood cell synthesis and deficiencies may cause anemia. Folic acid is also involved in cellular development and division; a deficiency can cause neural tube defect (spina bifida, encephalitis) in newborns.

To meet their needs, yeast is capable of synthesizing its own B vitamins. Like any living organism, they have an excellent storage mechanism for B-vitamins. These vitamins occur mainly in bound form as components of enzymes and coenzymes.

  • Thiamine is linked with phosphoric acid.
  • Riboflavin occurs in yeast flavoproteins, highly tied to proteins.
  • Pantothenic acid, one of the vitamins first isolated from yeast, is a constituent of coenzyme A.
  • Niacin is present in yeast as the amide of nicotinic acid.
  • Pyridoxine occurs as pyridoxal and pyridoxamine in coenzymes.
  • Biotin is found in yeast largely bound to proteins.

Bakon® is a range of primary grown torula inactive yeast with a hickory-smoked flavor profile. With a traditional smoking process, the range can contribute mild to strong smoked flavor notes and overall flavor enhancement.

Bioavailability is a subcategory of absorption that represents the fraction of the nutrient intake that will reach the systemic circulation. The majority of the vitamin and mineral supplements available in stores are made with inorganic nutrients. Under this form, these molecules are not as well absorbed and are less bio-available. On the other hand, when they are bound to a food matrix, they are more readily available for digestion and absorption. Yeast can serve as a bio-carrier. Used as a food matrix, it can help deliver important nutrients including B vitamins, minerals and trace minerals.

The active brewer yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) is responsible for converting fermentable sugars into alcohol and other by-products. The yeast slurry also called the barm is a major component of beer. It is collected directly from the fermenter and usually has the consistency of a thin cream. Once passed through a sieve and pressed, the brewers yeast is then dried by heat. This thermal process will inactivate the yeast enzymes and will cause the yeast to lose its fermentation power.

Brewer yeast being generally very bitter, some manufacturers use an additional process to produce what is called debittered brewer yeast.  This process helps remove the water soluble flavour compounds (hops) responsible for the bitter taste.

Available in a powder, flake or in tablets, brewers yeast is generally used as a nutrient supplement. Nutritionists will recommend its use because it is a rich source of B-complex vitamins and minerals including chromium, selenium, zinc, phosphorus and magnesium. It is also a good source of protein and dietary fibres. It may also contain nutrients that have yet to be discovered.

For centuries, people have been taking it on a daily basis, one tablespoon of brewers yeast, mixed with water, rice, tomato juice, etc. It is often used to stimulate appetite and milk production during lactation. Some people use it as a supplement for chronic acne, furunculosis, and treatment of acute diarrhea and prevention of diarrhea during travel. It is an excellent, low-cost food supplement for aging adults, and for growing and developing children.

Brewers yeast is frequently confused with nutritional yeast. Nutritional yeast is a primary grown food crop, which means it is cultivated specifically for use as a nutritional supplement.

All whole cell yeast commercialised by Lallemand Inc for nutritional or food savoury applications are inactivated by a thermal treatment. During the drying process, the heat causes the denaturation of yeast enzymes which leads to the loss of their fermentation activity. Hence, there are no risks of microorganism contamination when these products are consumed.

After the beer fermentation, the yeast cream is collected and passed through a sieve to collect the brewer yeast content. This treatment does not however remove the beer flavour compounds responsible for the beer (hops) bitter taste. Some manufacturers will add another washing process which leads to the production of debittered yeast that has a more agreeable, less bitter taste.

Dietary fibres are a type of indigestible carbohydrate. They are classified in the two following groups.

  • Soluble fibres: Fruits, oats, barley and beans
  • Insoluble fibres: Vegetables, legumes, wheat and other cereals.
  • Fibres consumption helps to preserve normal bowel movement and elimination. Their consumption is also associated with reduced blood cholesterol, as dietary fibres act as cholesterol sequestrant and help eliminate cholesterol before it is absorbed in the intestines.

Emulsification is the process of mixing two or more liquids that are usually unmixable, such as water and oil. Emulsions usually tend to be less stable over time and revert into two distinctive phases. Many Lallemand products possess emulsification enhancing properties that enable a more stable dispersion of the droplets into the liquid matrix (dispersion medium) over time.

Engevita® is a premium nutritional yeast that can contribute to your recipe or application in many ways on taste, texture, and nutritional value. Engevita® products are whole-cell yeast derived from primary grown Saccharomyces cerevisiae. They have been inactivated by heat and roller drum dried to obtain fine powders, flakes, mini flakes, and tablet grade powders, ideal for dietary supplements or direct consumption. Our whole-cell yeast products can provide numerous functional food properties and represent a natural and healthy way to increase the nutritional value of your food products. Engevita® is a source of B-complex vitamins, vitamin D, dietary fiber and protein. All our whole cell yeast products are GMO-free and can be Kosher and Halal certified. Engevita® is also available with Organic certification.

Engevita®  for Savory applications

Engevita®  for Health Ingredients applications

 

All microorganisms, including yeast, need the following basic components for growth and development:

  • A carbon source, generally coming from beet or cane molasses
  • A nitrogen source such as ammonium sulphate or phosphate
  • Minerals and traces elements (P, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Cu, Co)
  • Vitamins (biotin, pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, etc.)
  • The growth medium can be enriched with one or several of these components. Often, vitamins, minerals or trace elements will be added in larger amounts than what is required for the optimal yeast growth. Still, these components will be absorbed and stored in the yeast cell compartments. Enriched yeast can be used in normal nutrition applications or for the production of encapsulated supplements.

Lallemand Fermentation Nutrient Ingredients (FNIs) are primary yeast peptone and autolysates of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae that contain a high level of protein in the form of readily and easily assimilated amino acids and peptides. Some FNI products also contain nucleic acids, vitamins, minerals and other factors known to stimulate growth and metabolite production in many types of fermentation including lactic acid culture, pharmaceuticals and bioremediation.

Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada describes functional food as ‘’foods enhanced with bioactive ingredients and which have demonstrated health benefits’’. Functional foods usually have demonstrated beneficial physiological effects in the prevention, management, and/or treatment of chronic diseases that is beyond basic nutrition. They can come from conventional foods or from the addition of a bioactive constituent in conventional food, such as vitamins and minerals, probiotics, and β-glucans. The FDA (Food and Drug Administration) regulates all claims the industry can make to promote their products.

All the products supplied by Lallemand Bio-Ingredients are propagated from the microbial strains Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  These strains are rigorously checked and analyzed to ensure their identity and purity.

According to our historical files and analytical data, we have no direct or indirect evidence that any of our strains kept in our culture collection and produced on our premises has ever been genetically modified. Other non-yeast ingredients used in our products have either certification from our suppliers affirming they have been manufactured in such a manner that genetically modified organisms are not incorporated in their production and/or have been tested negative by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) testing.

Our products are also considered non-GMO under the current European legislation (regulations 1829/2003/EC and 1830/2003/EC).

Kokumi is similar to umami, meaning that it has the potential to enhance already existing flavours. However, the sensation it procures is different. The secret of kokumi is in the way you feel while consuming the food product. Kokumi is a feeling of richness and fullness in the flavour. Lallemand is able to provide kokumi to you through our products rich in nucleotides.

The Hebrew word kosher means fit or proper as it relates to kosher dietary law. Kosher foods can be eaten by Jewish, and can be used as ingredients in the production of additional food items.

To have our products certified Kosher, Lallemand Bio-Ingredients has emitted a request to a Kosher related organisation by submitting all ingredients used in the manufacturing of all products.  When that organisation determined that our product could be certified, our plants had a rabbinic inspection to assure that all kosher laws were respected.

Lake States® Torula is a specially grown primary torula yeast with a unique flavor profile and binding capacity. For over 50 years, Lake States® has been a leader in the development and commercialization of inactive dried torula yeast for the food industry, pharmaceuticals, industrial fermentations, animal feed, and pet food markets. Torula yeast products can be used to help reduce the use of additives such as MSG and HVPs. They are designed to impart savory notes, enhance texture and nutritional characteristics in foods. They are ideal for a broad range of processing temperatures and preparation techniques, including microwave.

 

Lalmin® mineral and vitamin yeasts are inactivated whole cell yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) containing elevated levels of specific minerals and/or vitamins. Lalmin® is produced either by enhancing and converting the natural endogenous vitamin of the yeast, or by supplementing the natural yeast fermentation with measured levels of minerals and/or vitamins. The yeast cream is then pasteurized and dried. This process allows selected micronutrients to interact with the yeast cell components. The gentle processing conditions allow preservation of essential nutrients from yeast.

 

LBI are products comprising inactive whole cell yeast, mainly used for taste and texture optimization. They are yeast of the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae that have been inactivated by heat, roller dried and ground. LBI products can provide a number of food enhancement benefits and represent a natural and healthy way to increase the nutritional value of your foodstuffs as it is naturally high in B-complex vitamins and contains high-quality proteins. Most of our whole cell yeast products are GMO-free and Kosher and Halal certified.

LBI for Savory applications

LBI for Health Ingredients applications

 

Lallemand yeast extracts are mainly derived from primary grown baker’s yeast and are referred to as baker’s yeast extracts. Yeast extracts can also be made from other sources of yeast from alcoholic fermentations such as beer making and are known as distillers yeast extracts. This type of alcohol yeast is quite different from baker’s yeast since they have been made used to convert sugars to alcohol. Lallemand LyfeTMyeast extracts contain peptides, free amino acids, nucleic acid, and other compounds, which, just like seasonings, help to improve taste, but also bring out and balance flavors in food products.

Macronutrients are nutrients that our body requires in large amounts in order to survive (macro means ‘’large’’). These are the constituents that contribute to caloric intake and provide the energy our body needs for growth, metabolism, tissue repair, and many other very important bodily functions. Carbohydrates and proteins both contribute to 4 calories per gram whereas fat contributes to 9 calories per gram. The only other molecule that provides calories is alcohol, which is not considered a macronutrient as it is not necessary for survival.

Micronutrients are nutrients that are required in smaller quantities but that are still necessary for wellness and health. Vitamins and minerals are good examples. As tiny as the amounts are, however, the consequences of their absence are severe. Micronutrient deficiency can have a great impact on mental and physical performance, immune function, vision, growth and development, etc.

Minerals are elements that originate in the earth and cannot be made by living systems. Plants obtain minerals from the soil, and most of the minerals in our diets come from directly from plants or indirectly from animal sources. Minerals may also be present in the water we drink, but this varies with geographic locale. Minerals from plant sources may also vary from place to place, because soil mineral content varies geographically.

Minerals are essential for body functioning and structure. They help to build body tissues (e.g. bone) or to regulate metabolic activities. Chromium, for example, is needed for glucose metabolism, increases effectiveness of insulin, muscle function. Copper is used in the formation of red blood cells and pigment; it is also needed for bone health. Iron is needed to produce blood cells and deficiency can cause anaemia. Iodine is essential for the body’s hormones and a deficiency can cause goitre (swellings in the neck).

Nucleotides are organic molecules composed of nucleosides and phosphate molecules. They are monomers, or building blocks, of nucleic acids, such as RNA or DNA. In the flavor industry, nucleotides are commonly used to impart the umami flavor to food. Only very small amounts are required to impart a very savory sensation. Products high in nucleotides, such as High-LyfeTM can be utilized to bring out taste and round off sharp notes. These products can be used in a wide range of applications, and in combination with other yeast extracts. Additionally, the use of low salt High-LyfeTM yeast extracts is an effective way to reduce sodium all the while helping to maintain the salt perception.

Nutritional yeast is a primary yeast grown on vitamin and mineral enriched molasses, and rich in macro- and micronutients. At the end of the growth period, the culture is pasteurized and dried to inactivate the yeast. The inactive yeast will not continue to grow in the intestine once ingested. It should not be confused with live, active yeast, which is used in bread, beer and wine making.

Nutritional yeast is used as a health food ingredient or as a supplement to improve nutrition. It has a pleasant nutty-cheesy flavor and is rich in protein, B vitamins and minerals.  It is available in flakes or powder (1 tablespoon powdered = 2 tablespoons flakes) and is a popular ingredient among vegans and health buffs who use it to enrich their food with added nutrition.  It is a great topping for popcorn, and adds cheesy flavours to sauces, pasta and other foods.  Nutritional yeast can be found in grocery and health food stores.

Nutritional yeast is very similar to brewers yeast, which is also used as a nutritional supplement and is made from the same strain of yeast.  The difference is that brewers yeast is a by-product of beer production and retains some of the bitter flavour of hops. Nutritional yeast is gluten-free.

Primary yeast, also called bakers yeast, is yeast grown in a controlled environment, for specific uses. Cultivation requires a good source of carbon, generally coming from beet or cane molasses, a source of nitrogen such as ammonium sulphate or phosphate, minerals and trace elements (P, K, Ca, Na, Fe, Cu, Co) as well as vitamins (biotin, pantothenate, thiamine, pyridoxine, etc.). To favor yeast biomass production, instead of alcoholic production, the medium also needs to be supplied with oxygen to assure aerobic conditions.  The growth process is closely monitored to prevent contamination and ensure a quality finished product.

This yeast is commonly used in the baking industry and also for a variety of other applications. When inactivated by heat, primary yeast can be used in savory food flavors, animal and human nutrition, and as a nutrient source for industrial fermentation.

Nutritional yeast grown under controlled conditions can produce high levels of protein, an amount comparable to that found in cereals and vegetables. A 20g portion of nutritional yeast can provide 10g of protein, a significant proportion of the daily 40-50g needed for women and 50-60g for men.

The protein in yeast is better quality than that of soy. In legumes, the deficient amino acid is methionine and is well complemented by the protein in cereal grains. However cereals are in turn limited by deficiencies in lysine, threonine and/or tryptophan. Saccharomyces cerevisiae nutritional yeast is a source of complete protein, containing all amino acid, including branched chain amino acids.

For many years the National Research Council of the United States National Academy of Sciences has taken responsibility for establishing guidelines regarding what quantities of various nutrients should be eaten by males and females of various ages. These were called RDA (for Recommended Dietary Allowances, and often referred to as Recommended Daily Allowances).

The RDA is the amount of specific nutrients considered adequate to meet the known nutrient needs of healthy people. It is based on scientific data and has been presented by a committee of the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS). The Canadian equivalent is the Recommended Nutrient Intakes. RDA is generally accepted throughout the world as a valid source of information. At least 40 different nations and organisations have published standards similar to the RDA.

Reaction flavor is the term given to food flavorings produced by heating together two or more precursors under carefully controlled conditions.

These water-soluble flavor precursors comprise many different classes of organic compounds, including peptides, amino acids, sugars, and amino sugars, amines and nucleic acid derivatives. The reaction that occurs when amino acids and sugars are heated together is called the Maillard reaction and is accompanied by non-enzymatic browning and the production of aromas.

The modern reaction flavor is a sophisticated product achieved by mixing suitable proportions of the “basic Maillard type” flavoring products (amino acids and sugars that were heated together), the aroma volatiles and other synergists or enhancers, fats or fatty acids, herbs and spices, etc.

Rheology is the study of how matter flows (solids or liquids). Rheological properties describe how matter can be deformed through elasticity, viscosity, plasticity, and cohesiveness. Often times the viscosity of a liquid is measured by the distance it is able to travel in a given time at a specific temperature. Many yeast products have the ability to modify the rheological properties of a liquid. For instance, they can increase viscosity without substantially modifying all other properties. Our products can provide body, increase stability, and improve emulsification.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the species of yeast fundamental to baking, brewing, distilling, winemaking and food fermentation since ancient times. It is commonly isolated from soil, fruits, food and beverages.

It occurs naturally on the surface of fruit and is present in dairy products where it plays an important role in the fermentation of kefir, coffee and cacao beans, and other traditional fermented products.

When inactivated, this species can be used in its whole cell form or as an extract to impart flavor and texture to food, add nutrition or aid in industrial fermentation activities.

To obtain a fine yeast powder, yeast manufacturers use a spray dryer to dry and bring the yeast water content down to 6%. This spray drying process transforms the yeast cream which is in a fluid state into a fine dried powder by spraying the cream into a hot drying medium. It is a one step continuous processing operation. Once the drying step is complete, the dried particles fall to the bottom of the spray-dry vessel and are collected.

Toravita™ range includes primary grown, torula-based dried whole cell or autolyzed yeast, produced by a unique process, delivering specific functionality and flavor notes to different food applications.

Torula yeast is a primary grown, dried inactive yeast specialty product. It is designed to impart savory notes, enhance texture and nutritional characteristics in foods. Our torula products can provide a number of food enhancement benefits and represent a natural and healthy way to enhance your food products. Torula whole cell yeast products, with the cell wall present, are designed to add mouthfeel and texture to the food to which they are added. They can also be used for their emulsification and flavor enhancement properties. All our torula yeast products are GMO-free and can be Kosher and Halal certified.

Umami, or “savory” if directly translated from Japanese, cannot be defined as a specific taste. Rather, it enhances already existing flavors when added to a food product. Yeast products can be used to provide umami but also reduce salt content without affecting the flavor. The effect is comparable to the use of MSG, without any adverse effects.

Vitamins are a type of organic micronutrient that is necessary to maintain optimal health by supporting daily metabolic processes. However, the human body cannot synthesize these molecules at all or in sufficient quantities to meet our needs. As some vitamins are more difficult to obtain from dietary intake alone, supplementation may prevent deficiencies and prevent the onset of various chronic diseases or permanent damage. To this day, there are 13 recognized types of vitamins that all carry distinctive biological and chemical activity. Vitamins are essential for growth and development, as well as maintenance of cells, tissues, and organs.

Yeast is a unicellular fungus that can convert sugar and starch into carbon dioxide bubbles and alcohol.   This characteristic has made it a useful ally in the production of bread, beer, and wine.

There are many varieties of yeast.  Bread is made with bakers yeast, which creates many bubbles which become trapped in the dough, making the bread rise and become light and airy when baked.  A small amount of alcohol is also produced, which evaporates as the bread bakes. Beer and wine yeasts are used to convert sugar into alcohol and, in the case of beer and champagne, bubbles.

The yeast species Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as active yeast for brewing and baking or as inactive yeast for flavor and texture improvement, health, nutrition and fermentation applications.

Autolysis is the process of self-digestion, in which the cell is destroyed through the action of its own digestive enzymes. Autolysates are produced in a similar manner to yeast extracts but cell walls are not removed in the process. This makes them partially water-soluble. Autolysates combine the positive attributes of yeast extracts and cell walls resulting in smaller peptides for taste improvement and enhancement, texture, viscosity.

Yeast extracts are flavour contributors and flavour enhancers consisting of a combination of nucleic acids, peptides, polypeptides, amino acids, and other constituents. They are obtained from the cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae yeast, formed in the production of baking yeast, brewing of beer or distillery of alcohol.

Yeast extracts are used to provide the same functions as monosodium glutamate, although not to the same extent. It is used as a partial substitute for meat extract and also functions with other flavour ingredients such as hydrolysed vegetable proteins.

They are used in soups, gravies, spreads, dressings, and meat products. Typical usage levels range from 0.1 to 2%.

Yesto-Seal® are brewers yeast products of species Saccharomyces cerevisiae which are specifically designed for tableting. Brewers yeast is a natural ingredient which is traditionally produced by washing, recovering and drying the yeast propagated during the production of beer. The yeast is dried at a controlled temperature which stops biological activity whilst maintaining its unique nutritional properties. Brewers yeast contains a natural mixture of high-grade protein, vitamins and minerals and provides an excellent cost effective source of ingredients to enhance the nutritional value of foodstuffs. Some products in the Yesto-Seal® range are Kosher and Halal certified, non-GMO, and clean label.

The Yesto-Seal® range also includes a SO2 free version as well as version free from major allergens.